Git is a distributed SCM, which means every developer has a full copy of all history of every revision of the code, making queries against the history very fast and versatile.The EGit project is implementing Eclipse tooling on top of the JGit Java implementation of Git.There is also a Visual Studio plugin to use git from Visual Studio. Built by Atlassian, the folks behind Bit Bucket, it seems to work equally well with any VC system, which allows you to master a single tool for use with all of your projects, however they're version-controlled. You have some good answers (especially gitcasts, and the push/pull answer), but could I recommend splitting it into a separate answers?The question'er requested that you "don't try to jam a bunch of information into one answer"!Git Extensions is a toolkit to make working with Git on Windows more intuitive.The shell extension will intergrate in Windows Explorer and presents a context menu on files and directories.Well, despite the fact that you asked that we not "simply" link to other resources, it's pretty foolish when there already exists a community grown (and growing) resource that's really quite good: the Git Community Book.
So: I will go through the entries from time to time and 'tidy' them up so they have a consistent look/feel and it's easy to scan the list - feel free to follow a simple "header - brief explanation - list of instructions - gotchas and extra info" template.In a single window you see branches, history and working directory status. You can compare two or three folders and launch file comparisons.Everyday operations are easy: stage and unstage changes with a checkbox. You can browse and view a working copy from popular version control systems such such as CVS, Subversion, Bazaar-ng and Mercurial [ At a glance, see which remote branches have changes to pull and local repos have changes to push.Git GUI can do a majority of what you'd need to do with git.Including stage changes, configure git and repositories, push changes, create/checkout/delete branches, merge, and many other things.