As early as 1845, several other explorers and travelers reported seeing what appeared to be abandoned Indian pueblos. Leroux has been credited with being the first white man to identify and report such antiquities. These people and many others like them formed a close family of researchers which eventually developed a classification or taxonomy of prehistoric "traditions": 1.
Later, more professionally trained and committed scholars such as Adolph Bandelier, the "Father of Southwestern Archaeology" (1881), Jesse Walter Fewkes (1891), and Frederick Webb Hodge (1893) undertook scientific studies of Southwestern pueblo sites and published their findings in scholarly journals. The Anasazi Tradition: This group of prehistoric Indians lived in the high plateau country of the San Juan, Little Colorado, and upper Rio Grande valleys.
The physiographic Southwest houses cultural traits that give it a unique regional identity.
Several very distinctive and conspicuous ethnological features dominate the region.
He found that in this region "there were many different trends and counter-trends with respect to the acceptance and rejection of what the conquerors offered as a new and superior way of life." Spicer discovered that "where the land and other resources were regarded as undesirable by the invaders or where, through a variety of circumstances ranging from exceptional tribal cohesion to unusual natural barriers, the natives were able to resist successfully, the processes of extermination and cultural absorption did not take place." By forming and protecting cultural islands in the midst of the European societies expanding around them, these Indian groups, with some mutations and adaptations, extended the survival of their original culture.
This condition may also be attributed to the fact that toward the end of the "frontier" period, United States Indian policy became more protective of Southwestern Indians.
Other ancient cultures associated with such places as the Gypsum Cave, Tabeguache Cave, Sandia Cave, and Cochise sites, are located clearly within the physiographic region. During the past two thousand years prehistoric societies developed within the Southwest that ethnologists understand more substantially and more accurately than they understand the Ancient Cultures.This group of scholars was succeeded by still another era of archaeologists: Alfred V Kidder (1910), Earl H. Relying primarily upon the dry-farming of corn, they also used natural runoff from springs and the heads of streams to water other crops.They quite possibly first inhabited this general region about the time of Christ and have continued down to the present day. The Patayan Tradition: Also known as the "Yuman" culture, these people lived in the Colorado River Valley below the Grand Canyon.They used the waters of the Salt and Gila rivers to irrigate their crops. Ethnologists think it is possible that the Hohokam may have been the ancestors of the modem-day Pima and Tohono O'odham (Papago) peoples. The Mogollon Tradition: Though not so advanced as either the Anasazi or the Hohokam traditions, the Mogollon culture deserves recognition because it appears to be the Southwest prehistoric group which offers the earliest evidence of intensive horticulture, a durable material culture, and a settled mode of life. The origin of these people is unclear, as is the explanation for their departure. Except for the top half of the "Northern Peripheral" group and a slice of the "Eastern Peripheral" group, all of these prehistoric peoples lived within the area designated in this essay as the "physiographic Southwest." The expression "peripheral" speaks for itself.Possibly descendants of the Cochise culture, they came to Arizona sometime prior to A. These people occupied the Upper Gila River and Mimbres Valley areas from about 300 B. Contemporary Native Americans No place else within the United States contains such impressive remnants of prehistoric culture as does the Southwest.