One of the providers is Aristotle International Inc, which offers a variety of methods, including having a parent vouch for a child and make a token payment with a credit card to establish the parent's identity.
Yet even though defensive techniques are now available and effective they can be expensive.
He was born in County Durham and raised on a farm in Cumberland.
A boyish interest in science and in collecting minerals was encouraged at school, and he went on to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and took a first degree in Chemistry in 1937.
Joseph Chatt, research chemist: born Horden, Co Durham 6 November 1914; Research Chemist, Woolwich Arsenal 1941-42; Deputy Chief Chemist (later Chief Chemist), Peter Spence & Sons 1942-46; ICI Research Fellow, Imperial College London 1946-47; Head of Inorganic Chemistry Department, Butterwick Research Laboratories, ICI 1947-60; FRS 1961; Group Manager, Research Department, Heavy Organic Chemicals Division, ICI 1961-62; Director, Research Unit of Nitrogen Fixation, Agricultural Research Council 1963-80; Professor of Inorganic Chemistry, Queen Mary's College, London 1964; Professor of Chemistry, Sussex University 1964-80 (Emeritus); CBE 1978; Wolf Foundation Prize for Chemistry 1981; married 1947 Ethel Williams (one son, one daughter); died Hove .
JOSEPH CHATT was one of the most distinguished inorganic chemists of his generation.
Chatt might well have 'brain drained' to the United States, but a new and exciting research prospect arose from an unexpected direction.
Yet he remained modest and friendly, and found time to pursue his hobby of numismatics.Chatt had not lost his predilection for basic research, however, and in 1947 he joined ICI's new fundamental research laboratory at The Frythe, outside Welwyn.He was given a department of his own and embarked upon a celebrated programme of research which effectively brought inorganic chemistry out of the scientific doldrums into the mainstream of chemistry.Chatt was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1961.A downturn in ICI's profits led to The Frythe being closed in 1962.