The provincial flag features a ship superimposed on a yellow background with a yellow lion passant guardant on red pennon above it.New Brunswick is within the traditional lands of the Maliseet and Mi'kmaq peoples. After the defeat of the French and their First Nations allies, it was claimed by the British, becoming part of the Colony of Nova Scotia.
Many politicians who supported confederation, such as Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley (New Brunswick's best-known Father of Confederation), found themselves without a seat after the next election; nevertheless, backers of the wider confederation eventually prevailed.
The Charlottetown Conference of 1864, which ultimately led to the confederation movement, originally had been intended to discuss only a Maritime Union, but concerns over the American Civil War as well as Fenian activity along the border led to an interest in expanding the scope of the proposed union.
This interest in an expanded union arose from the Province of Canada (formerly Upper and Lower Canada, later Ontario and Quebec), and a request was made by the Canadian political leaders to the organizers of the Maritime conference to have the meeting agenda altered.
Resource-based industries such as logging and farming were also important components of the New Brunswick economy during this time and railways were constructed throughout the province to serve them and link the rural communities.
New Brunswick, one of the four original provinces of Canada, entered the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867.